Bangkok - Warm, wet and wild is the best way to describe Thailand's Songkran Festival. Celebrated each year in mid-April, when the temperatures are at their hottest, Thai New Year is marked by a three-day, nationwide water fight, as people in every province drench one another with water guns and hoses, and smear white powder onto each other's faces.
But among traditionalists, including some in the government, there is growing concern over Songkran's wilder aspects, which includes heavy alcohol consumption and skimpy clothing.
"I think Songkran these days involves too much drinking, too many public displays of affection and too many obscene gestures," said 84-year-old Yisoon Laohateeranonda."I wish it was more traditional and family-oriented."
In response to such complaints, the government and local authorities have said they will ban revealing clothing, along with the sale and consumption of alcohol and high-pressure water guns in some areas. The Bangkok mayor's office says it will enforce the bans in Silom, one of the most popular areas to celebrate in the Thai capital.
The tighter controls, outlined in an eight-point official plan, has upset some Songkran revellers."This is a special occasion for celebration," said Yuthawit Boonkhoom, a 21-year-old university student.
"People should be ableto celebrate how they want to."Existing laws already address such issues as drunk driving, public nudity and sexual harassment, Yuthawit said."Additional restrictions are making it less enjoyable. But I want todrink and have a good time, so nothing will stop me," he added.
Although Songkran has not been Thailand's official new year since 1888, when the country adopted the Western calendar, it remains one of the most important national holidays. Many Thais try to promote traditional ways of celebrating Songkran. In the government's eight rules, people are encouraged to wear traditional Thai clothes and participate in activities that promote Thai values.
People are advised to sprinkle water on to Buddha images and monks to receive blessings, to pour water onto elderly family members' handsto show respect, and to throw water at each other in a friendly way, according to a book published by the cultural promotion department.
"Songkran was very low key when I was younger," said Yisoon, the 84-year-old. "It was quite religious. We would go to temples andthere was very little water splashing going on." The festival's humble beginnings involved family gatherings and water blessings. Water is traditionally used to symbolize purification, washing away the bad and welcoming the good for the coming year."
Songkran has undergone dramatic change," said Mike Robinson, acultural heritage professor at the University of Birmingham in Britain. "The performances and practices that we see today arelargely a reinvention from the 1950s ... It has evolved into atourism event for both Thais and foreigners.
"The celebrations have turned into large, riotous street parties.Convoys of pickup trucks loaded with people and water tanks cruise around town soaking passersby. Armies of people roam city streets to splash and get splashed. The atmosphere is high-energy andcheerful, usually with lots of laughter and smiles.
Commercialized celebrations in major cities like Bangkok, Chiang Mai and Khon Kaen attract people from around the world.
Thailand's tourism industry has seen a surge in foreign touristarrivals the past few decades, tripling since the late 1990s. More than 2.6 million people are expected to visit this year duringthe holiday period, generating more than 446 million US dollars inrevenue for the economy, according to the national tourism authority.
"The festival has been adapted to fit the growing number oftourists," said Robinson. "What were once small practices during the festival have become magnified so the sprinkling of water has beentransformed into the throwing of water.""I know that Songkran should be spent visiting family and going totemples," said Theeradet Suphannabut.
"But that shouldn't stop mefrom having fun and enjoying myself during the holiday.""I can balance spending time with my family and throwing water or partying with friends," he said."Songkran has combined old and new ways," said Robinson. Bangkok exemplifies that combination with all kinds of celebrations,from traditional riverside events and live cultural performances tohotel pool parties and electronic dance music festivals.
Over time, all festivals evolve and adapt themselves to differentsocial, cultural, economic and political situations. There is noright or wrong, but rather only what is appropriate for the local community, according to Robinson."Festivals symbolise and enact change," he said. "They are aboutallowing people and societies to change and help them celebrate the change.