Chengdu, capital city of Southwest China's Sichuan province, came out on top in Oriental Outlook magazine's annual ranking of the 10 happiest Chinese cities in 2017.
Beijing and Shanghai, which both made it into the 2015 and 2016 lists, were pushed out by second- and third-tier cities.
Oriental Outlook works with the Liaowang Think Tank to do research for the rankings. This is the 11th consecutive year it has been published. More than 13.95 million people nationwide participated in the survey based on 16 indexes, including education, health care, environment and public services.
No 10 Xuzhou
Photo taken on Jan 17, 2018 shows herbal sachets at a workshop in the wetland park of Pan'anhu Lake, in Xuzhou, East China's Jiangsu province. [Photo/Xinhua]
No 9 Tongchuan
Terraced fields in Tongchuan, Northwest China's Shaanxi province, June 6, 2017. [Photo/IC]
No 8 Taizhou
A man rides a bike on a street in Taizhou, East China's Zhejiang province, Jan 3, 2018. [Photo/IC]
No 7 Changsha
Visitors take photos of a fireworks display on New Year's Day at Orange Island Park in Changsha, Central China's Hunan province, Jan 1, 2018. [Photo/IC]
No 6 Changchun
Children play at a skating rink during the first day of winter vacation at the children's park in Changchun, capital of Northeast China's Jilin province, Jan 6, 2018. [Photo/Xinhua]
No 5 Xi'an
Folk artists from Suide couty of Yulin city sing in Xi'an, capital of Northwest China's Shaanxi province, on Jan 27, 2018, during a tourism promotion event to invite people to spend the Chinese Lunar New Year in Yulin. [Photo/Xinhua]
No 4 Nanjing
The newly built G-Takaya bookstore is endowed with a great cultural atmosphere in Nanjing, East China's Jiangsu province. [Photo/IC]
No 3 Ningbo
A woman takes a picture in front of flowers in Ningbo, East China's Zhejiang province, Feb 3, 2018. [Photo/IC]
No 2 Hangzhou
Passengers check a robot that provides travel guidance in Hangzhou East Railway Station in Hangzhou, East China's Zhejiang province, on Feb 1, 2018, with the help of the station’s staff members. [Photo by Dong Xuming/For China Daily]
No 1 Chengdu
A night view of Taikoo Li Chengdu in Chengdu, Southwest China's Sichuan province, June 16, 2017. [Photo/VCG]