A full-size replica  of a V2 rocket on display at the Technical Historical Museum  in Peenemuende, Germany.
A full-size replica of a V2 rocket on display at the Technical Historical Museum in Peenemuende, Germany.

German birthplace of Nazis’ V2 rocket embraces hard right

opinion September 14, 2017 01:00

By Deborah COLE
Agence France-Presse
PEENEMUENDE, Germany

The German town of Peenemuende, population 250, has no school, no supermarket and none of the refugees who have streamed into the country in the last two years.



What it does have are the ruins of the Nazis’ biggest military development complexes, where the V2 rocket was born, and one of the highest levels of support for the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany (AfD) party ahead of this month’s general election.

The community’s unique Third Reich history and then communist past and its isolated perch in the northeastern corner of Germany have left it particularly receptive to the AfD’s anti-migrant and anti-Muslim message – despite members of both groups being distinctly thin on the ground. Forty-seven per cent of Peenemuende’s citizens voted AfD in a state election last September, meaning the town offers special insight into the appeal of a party that has rocked the German political establishment and looks set to win its first seats in the national parliament.

Another 5.6 per cent cast a ballot for the far-right NPD. 

“I watched all my schoolmates move away because there were no jobs and no support for young people or families with kids,” says AfD voter Frank Neumann, 30, who runs tour boats on the Baltic.

“The established parties – and [Chancellor Angela] Merkel embodies them – have accomplished nothing in the last decade. I don’t know if the AfD as a new party can do better but I’m hopeful.”

Neumann, who says he was drawn to the AfD’s emphasis on national pride, said growing up in the shadow of the Peenemuende complex was a mixed blessing.

“As I child of course I thought it was fascinating – it was like a big playground with all the ruins hidden in the woods,” he recalls.

“Later I realised that the technological achievements here were sensational but linked to war and destruction. We’re not exactly proud of that. Our pride is more general – everybody should be proud of their own country and heritage.” 

Peenemuende occupies the northern tip of Usedom, an island of white sandy beaches and tree-shaded bicycle paths that attracts hordes of holidaymakers every summer.

It makes the region highly dependent on tourism, with a big fluctuation in jobless figures between the high season, when it reaches about 10 per cent, twice the national average, and the frigid winter, when the rate can hit 15 per cent.

Construction worker Nico Janick, 40, says the AfD had initially appealed to him for focusing on “forgotten” parts of Germany.

But he adds he got turned off by the party infighting and now has no intention of voting at all.

“I don’t have any faith in the AfD any more,” he says. “They exploited the refugee crisis but if they were in power it would be pure chaos.”

Peenemuende’s impressive historical museum attracts 160,000 visitors a year from around the world, including the countries targeted by the V2 in the 1940s: Britain, France, Belgium and the Netherlands.

The world’s first long-range guided ballistic missiles, the V1 and more powerful successor, the V2, rained terror on population centres in the last years of World War II and are believed to have killed at least 15,000 people.

But the technology required to take the weapon to the outer reaches of the Earth’s atmosphere later helped usher in the space age.

Tourists flock to see where armies of workers including slave labourers built the rockets, and where chief engineer Wernher von Braun laid the foundations for the Apollo moon missions.

The museum’s chief archivist, Thomas Koehler, says Peenemuende was a place of “myths and legends” around Germany’s most glorious and shameful chapters.

“We try to present history as it was – we don’t cover up the negative aspects, which many technical enthusiasts regret,” he says.

Along with immigration, the four-year-old AfD has also taken aim at Germany’s remembrance culture – the solemn duty to acknowledge and atone for the Nazis’ crimes.

Bjoern Hoecke, AfD chairman of Thuringia state, sparked a storm of protest in January for calling to turn the page on the country’s wartime guilt.

“The country cannot live for an eternity in rubble and ashes,” an AfD candidate running for parliament said.